The flu vaccine is not included in the mandatory list of vaccines and is done at the request of the patient. Listening to the advice of doctors and monitoring the epidemic situation in your hometown, you can easily protect yourself and your relatives from unpleasant, and sometimes fatal diseases.
What is a vaccine? Pros and cons
A vaccine is a medical product aimed at creating a piece of active immunity, that is, stimulate the human immune system and, conditionally, "train" it to fight the infection. The first vaccine against smallpox was created and successfully used by a doctor, Edward Jenner, originally from England.
From the end of the XVIII century, mankind began to actively create new vaccines, which allowed for the prevention of the population and significantly reduce the level of diseases caused by dangerous infections.
The minds of the whole world have worked on the creation of a number of vaccines, resorting to various methods that are actively used in the modern world. At the same time, there was a need to classify vaccines.
All vaccines are divided into four main groups: live, inactivated, multivalent and combined. Briefly about each type, their advantages and disadvantages:
- Living - the name of this type of vaccine speaks for itself. In such preparations, live and weakened pathogens are used. Special treatment reduces the risk of developing a full-fledged disease, but still it remains. This is the main disadvantage of this type of vaccine, which is why patients are apprehensive. At the same time, "live" vaccines allow you to create a stronger immunity against the disease. Thanks to such drugs, humanity has protection against tuberculosis, measles, rubella and other diseases.
- ANDnaktirovannye - vaccines that contain the killed pathogen or part of it that can cause an immune response. Among the advantages: high production of immunity (although weaker than that of "live" vaccines) and the lack of likelihood of developing a full-fledged disease. However, such a drug is difficult to create. It is necessary to find a "middle ground", which completely inactivates the pathogen, but does not completely destroy it. Examples of this type of vaccine are preparations against polio, influenza, typhoid, typhoid, cholera and others.
- Polivalent - as for this type, such drugs contain several antigens (substances to which the immune system responds) of one pathogen. For a better understanding, it is worthwhile to draw an analogy: there is a “family” of flu, they all cause the same disease, and they are all “blood relatives”, but the “characters” are different. One antigen in such a vaccine allows one to form an immune response only against the “character” of one of the family. As a result, more antigens are added to the drug in order to protect the body as much as possible. An example is anti-flu drugs.
- TOcombined - similar to polyvalent, but combined have antigens for various diseases, which is the main advantage. An example is the DTP vaccine (Adsorbed pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine).
Features of the use of vaccines. The main contraindications
Vaccination is a necessary and responsible procedure. Before the introduction of the vaccine, the doctor is obliged to examine the patient and inquire in detail about possible diseases, complaints and other things. It is worthwhile to ask the patient about the presence of an allergy, because some people may develop anaphylactic shock as a result of an allergic reaction. This condition is a mortal danger, and getting a person out of it can be problematic.
As a rule, vaccines are administered intradermally or intramuscularly, which allows you to most effectively develop immunity. Each person has a special document known as the vaccination calendar, which records the introduction of vaccines against the most common diseases. There are cases when, in the absence of any vaccination, they were not hired. In a similar way, people were motivated to get vaccinated, which ultimately had a positive effect.
There are a number of contraindications, with the presence of which the introduction of the vaccine is strictly prohibited, because of the danger to the patient's health. The main ones include:
- The presence of a disease in a person at the time of examination
- Immunodeficiency state (it is especially important to know when administering live vaccines)
- The patient is allergic to one of the components contained in the vaccine
- Some vaccines have contraindications for pregnant women.
Vaccination for children and pregnant women
Vaccination among children and pregnant women has some peculiarities. The people have used the expression: "Children are the flowers of life." This is true, only the younger the “flowers”, the more sensitive they are. A vaccination is quite an unpleasant thing. Some children become afraid of doctors and syringes. In such cases, when vaccinating children, the key role is played by psychological contact with the child and attitude. In this situation, it will not do without the help of parents.
Also, children are supposed to administer a lower dose of the drug, unlike the vaccine for adults. Similar nuances are placed on the shoulders of the doctor. It is important not to forget to ask parents about the presence of allergies in the child. In light of recent data, the number of allergic diseases in each generation is increasing, so this stage of the survey should not be forgotten.
The body of a pregnant woman works for two, as a result, expectant mothers often experience a lack of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Fortunately, such inconveniences are quickly corrected, but the fact that the body is in constant stress must be taken into account. The pregnant woman's health is given special attention, because the smallest disease can radically change the normal course of fetal development and lead to many pathologies. You need to know that some vaccines are not allowed for pregnant women (measles and rubella vaccines).
Essential Vaccine Medicines
Over the past years since the first vaccines, mankind has invented a lot of drugs. Despite the technological and scientific progress against some infections, vaccines cannot be created. Often this happens due to the fact that bacteria, and especially viruses, are prone to mutations that develop resistance (resistance) to the used antibiotics in pathogens. After certain changes in the structure of the virus or bacteria, the immune system slowly responds to a “new” infection, against which it would seem to be vaccinated. As a result, the human body begins to “learn” again to defeat the disease.
At the same time, the “old” infections do not disappear. In Russian medical institutions, the following vaccines are often used for vaccination against influenza:
- Influwak - is an inactivated subunit vaccine. Available in disposable syringes. According to online sources, the drug can be used for children and pregnant women. BUT!!! It is worth noting that medicine is a relatively relative science, because in the world there are no two identical people, the organism of everyone living on the planet is unique. Do not forget that this is a vaccine that has a number of contraindications and side effects, which means DOCTOR CONSULTATION without fail.
- Waxigrip - the drug is also used as a preventive measure against influenza. A medication is an inactivated vaccine that contains a killed virus. DIRECTOR CONSULTATION BEFORE USE!
When and where to get the vaccine
People who want to protect their own body from ailments are asking questions: "when to do?" "where can I get the vaccine?" As for the venue for this event, the answer is simple: just find any medical facility in the city, usually one of the city hospitals.
As for the question of choosing a vaccine and the time of its use, such a question is solved through the office of the attending physician. According to official data, as a rule, the season of sores, in particular flu, falls on the autumn-winter time. Most often, vaccinations are given in early autumn, because after the administration of the drug, it takes some time for the body to develop antibodies (such fighters who are on guard of well-being).
The epidemiological situation in Moscow and in Russia as a whole
Fortunately, seasonal spread of the flu did not cause serious problems. According to data from Rospotrebnadzor, on the 3rd week of 2019, there was a peak in flu diseases. Thanks to the coordinated work of the state apparatus and medical institutions, the epidemiological situation was stabilized.
Due to the high level of diseases, the local administration had to quarantine schools. For schoolchildren, this is like an “extra” vacation, but in fact, quarantine is a serious situation, the algorithm of which is aimed at reducing the level of the disease and the spread of infection by isolating patients and carrying out preventive measures.
The representative of Rospotrebnadzor drew attention to the following areas: Perm Territory, Altai Territory, Yakutia, Karelia and others. In these areas, doctors carried out active work to inform the population about the methods of prevention, and strongly advised them to refrain from visiting crowded places. Only due to strict adherence to the advice of doctors is it possible in a few days to stop the spread of infection and remove quarantine.
Testimonials from doctors and people's beliefs about vaccines
Access to any information allows the patient to know in detail about his illness, which, sometimes, misleads a person for several reasons:
- The source of information may be inaccurate or out of date.
- The abundance of medical terminology and its misunderstanding spread unnecessary fear and fear.
- Often, typical cases are given in the educational literature that allow the student to learn to distinguish and characterize diseases using vivid examples. As already mentioned: “Medicine is a relative thing,” as a result, a person can have a disease in a certain, mixed form, or lighter. But the vivid description in the textbook will make the patient overly worried.
As a result, disputes often arise between doctors and patients.
Returning to the topic of vaccines, the following is worth mentioning: doctors have a positive attitude to vaccination and promote its implementation in the name of human health and its environment.
Unfortunately, cases were recorded when they died from the use of the vaccine. Such scandals caused people to fear vaccination, which forced them to completely abandon it. During the investigation, it turned out that during transportation of the vaccines storage rules were violated. Yes, the transportation of the vaccine is no less important than its manufacture, especially for “live” vaccines: violation of the temperature regime can create favorable conditions for the development and propagation of the infection. As a result, instead of a preventive vaccine, a person receives a colossal dose of a bacterium or virus into the body.
To prevent such situations, a special institute operates in each state to verify the quality of each batch of vaccine. A mistake in this case is punishable by criminal liability, but this is nothing compared to the dead people who used the killer “vaccine”.