Since the end of 2012, the term "medical examination" has firmly entered the life of Russians. And, despite the already quite impressive age of this practice, there are still a lot of questions for our fellow citizens with it. In particular, many are interested in what exactly includes this concept? Who can count on a similar procedure and when? What is its order and features for different categories of the population?
For these and other questions, we asked for clarification from the lawyers of the Kursk Oblast Prosecutor's Office, and also consulted in sources close to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.
The essence of the medical examination
According to the Order of the Ministry No. 1006n dated December 3, 2012, the medical examination is a comprehensive medical examination that is used for both working and disabled citizens, as well as for full-time students in educational institutions. Representatives of both sexes are subject to it from the age of 21, and it is carried out every three years, with a number of exceptions. The goal is to identify serious diseases in the early stages, to increase the general level of health of Russian citizens.
You can go for a follow-up examination at a local clinic or at a feldsher point serving your address, where your health workers will tell you when you have scheduled events, where you can go through them and what they will be like.
Upon presentation of the compulsory medical insurance policy and the passport of a citizen of the country, a direction is given for free passage of all procedures and examinations. All this can be done during working hours or while studying, and neither the employer nor the educational institution have the right to impede this process.
What years of birth fall under the medical examination in 2020?
For those who do not need to be examined every year, or are not prescribed specific examinations by age, calculating whether to apply for regular medical examinations in the upcoming 2020 is very simple: divide the number of years that you will be fulfilled by 3. If it is completely divided, then the time has come.
Specifically, for the first time this year, those born in 2002 will apply for medical examination. And besides them, the implementation of this program is provided for those born in 1999, 1996, 1993, 1990, 1987, 1984, 1981, 1978, 1975, 1972, 1969, 1966, 1963, 1960, 1957, 1954, 1951, 1948, 1945 , 1942, 1939, 1936, 1933, 1930, 1927, 1924, 1921, etc.
Clinical age categories
General provisions on the procedure itself are fully described in Order No. 1006n.
Order No. 1006n of December 3, 2012:
The upper age threshold for medical examination has not been established. But globally, there are three categories of people for whom the concept of clinical examination is relevant, and whose criteria for passing which differ.
These are children (minors), persons over 21 years of age (regardless of the form of employment, as well as unemployed and full-time students) and those who belong to the risk category (blockers, invalids of the Second World War, people with disabilities due to labor injury, general illness, are constantly dispensary registration). The latter are examined every year, regardless of the severity of the condition and age.
All adults, but not belonging to the risk group, may first come to the medical examination at the age of 21, and then, if they prefer to monitor their health and increase the effectiveness of preventive measures, visit it with a three-year interval.
Clinical examination and children
Minors undergo the so-called "children's medical examination", which can be found in more detail in another order of the Ministry of Health No. 1346n.
Order No. 1346n of December 21, 2012:
Newborns and children under one year old visit a pediatrician and undergo all prescribed examinations, take tests every month, even in the absence of indications and real need.
Until two years of age, the frequency stretches to three months, and in the next year of life, this must be done twice. Then a visit to the pediatrician must be undertaken annually, and an extended physical examination is carried out every year, three, six years, and at school age: at 7, 10, 14 and 17.
For children's medical examination, they turn to the polyclinic at the child’s place of residence (where it is registered) or to the feldsher point if the first institution is not provided for by the specifics of the municipality.
Research and diagnostics for the program "Clinical examination-2020"
As part of this year’s follow-up phase, all adult patients are assigned an initial examination at a local therapist, where an anamnesis is collected, a questionnaire is filled out indicating all potentially dangerous health risk factors, and a general diagnosis is made based on all this.
The composition of the initial examination may be different, depending on the age of the patient, the presence of chronic diseases, as well as the health picture recorded in the medical record. Then, directions for visiting narrow specialists are issued. As a rule, this includes such studies and examinations:
- anthropometry with a conclusion (special attention is paid to overweight categories);
- blood pressure measurement;
- calculation of the relative risk of the cardiovascular system (up to 39 years);
- calculation of the absolute risk of the cardiovascular system (up to 63 years);
- ECG (from 36 years for men and from 45 to women);
- FLH (from 36 years for men and from 45 to women);
- mammography (from 39 years in women, from 48 years - more often, every two years, regardless of the timing of the medical examination);
- gynecological examination (women);
- measurement of intraocular pressure (from 60 years);
- examination by a urologist or surgeon (45, 51 years old);
- examination by a coloproctologist or surgeon, colonoscopy (from 49 years old);
- duplex scanning of brachycephalic arteries (from 45 years in men and 54 years in women);
This means a visit to a therapist, endocrinologist, ophthalmologist, neurologist, surgeon, urologist or gynecologist, cardiologist, otolaryngologist (if indicated), surgeon, gastroenterologist (if indicated), ultrasound (if indicated). Analyzes are given:
- clinical blood and urine tests;
- sugar level;
- blood cholesterol;
- tumor markers (women and men over 40);
- blood biochemical (if indicated);
- cervical smear cytology (women from 30 years old)
and others prescribed by the therapist and narrow specialists, depending on the anamnesis.
The result gives a conclusion on belonging to a particular health group. There are only three of them:
- Absolute health;
- There is a potential for the development of diseases, including diseases of the cardiovascular system, diabetes mellitus, oncology, etc .;
- Diagnosed with diseases that need permanent monitoring by specialists.
Specialized medical care is also prescribed, if necessary, directions for sanatorium-resort treatment are written out and relevant recommendations are given on the regimen of the day, lifestyle, the following indicative schedules for visiting a medical institution for the purpose of preventive examination are indicated.
The state medical examination program in Russia was adopted with the aim of providing all citizens of the country with regular, in-depth and high-quality medical and preventive services, reducing the burden on specialized institutions and making their work more efficient and streamlined.
At the same time, everyone’s participation in it is built on a voluntary basis, however, Russian doctors recommend recognizing the importance of the medical examination and not miss the deadlines for its passage under any circumstances. Remember, health is your greatest value!